School of Public Health and Community Medicine

At Elderly Vaccination Workshop, with Max Walker


Raina has worked in immunisation for over 20 years, including 15 years at the National Centre for Immunisation Research. She is the Head of UNSW Vaccine and Infection Research Lab (UNSW-VIRL). She won the peak award for Immunisation in Australia, the PHAA Immunisation Achievement Award in 2014, for her research in vaccinology. She has a particular interest in vulnerable and high risk populations, including immunosuppressed, health workers, first responders, migrants and refugees, and adult vaccination with a focus on the frail elderly. Specific vaccination interests include influenza, pneumococcal disease, HPV , measles, hepatitis A , small pox, anthrax and herpes zoster. She has also done vaccine trials in immunosuppressed populations to study the immunogenicity of vaccines against weakened immunity. Methodologies include phase 3 clinical trials, epidemiology, mathematical modelling and translational research. She has done recent work on vaccine effectiveness of influenza vaccine against myocardial infarction. She led a NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in immunisation for high risk populations from 2012-16. She is on the Council of 100 for the journal Vaccine, the peak journal in this field. She has been a plenary speaker on elderly vaccination at the International Federation for Ageing, the Australian Primary care Nurses Association, and Medicines New Zealand Adult Vaccination Symposium.

Selected publications

MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA, Rahman B, Peng Y, Zhang Y, Seale H, et al. The efficacy of medical masks and respirators against respiratory infection in health workers. Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 2017.

MacIntyre CR, Moa A. If there were a vaccine against acute myocardial infarction, would you use it? Future Cardiology. 2017.

Raina MacIntyre C, Chughtai AA, Zhang Y, et al. Viral and bacterial upper respiratory tract infection in hospital health care workers over time and association with symptoms. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2017;17:553. doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2649-5.

Jayasundara, D., B. B. Hui, D. G. Regan, A. E. Heywood, C. R. MacIntyre and J. G. Wood (2017). "Quantifying the population effects of vaccination and migration on hepatitis A seroepidemiology in Australia." Vaccine.

A. Mahimbo, H. Seale, M. Smith, A. Heywood, Challenges in immunisation service delivery for refugees in Australia: A health system perspective, Vaccine, August 2017 [Full text]

MacIntyre CR, Katelaris AL, Ridda I, Chughtai AA, Moa A, Barnes M, et al. The immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in adult bone marrow transplant patients. British Journal of Haematology. 2017:n/a-n/a.

Menzies RI, Leask J, Royle J, MacIntyre CR. Vaccine myopia: adult vaccination also needs attention. The Medical journal of Australia. 2017;206(6):238-9.

Saha A, Rosewell A, Hayen A, MacIntyre CR, Qadri F. Improving immunization approaches to cholera. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2017;16(3):235-48.

C. Raina MacIntyre, Peter Shaw, Fiona E. Mackie, Christina Borose, Helen Marshall, Michelle Barnes, Holly Seale, Sean E. Kennedy, Aye Moa, Andrew Hayen, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Edward V. O’Loughlin, Michael Stormon. Immunogenicity and persistence of immunity of a quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in immunocompromised children. Vaccine
Available online 9 July 2016
Karki S;Dyda A;Newall A;Heywood A;MacIntyre CR;McIntyre P;Banks E;Liu B, 2016, 'Comparison of influenza vaccination coverage between immigrant and Australian-born adults', Vaccine, vol. 34, pp. 6388 - 6395,, ROS ID: 849583
Kpozehouen E;Heywood AE;Kay M;Smith M;Paudel P;Sheikh M;Macintyre CR, 2016, 'Improving access to immunisation for migrants and refugees: Recommendations from a stakeholder workshop', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health,, ROS ID: 861627
Dirmesropian S, Wood JG, MacIntyre CR, Beutels P, *Newall AT. Economic Evaluation of Vaccination Programmes in Older Adults and the Elderly: Important Issues and Challenges. PharmacoEconomics. Published online 25 Feb2016:1-9.

Seale, H., Sitaresmi, MN., Atthobari, J., Heywood, AE., Kaur, R., MacIntyre, CR., Soenarto, Y., Padmawati, RS. Knowledge and attitudes towards rotavirus diarrhoea and the vaccine amongst healthcare providers in Yogyakarta Indonesia. BMC Health Services Research, 2015; 15: 528.

Karki S, McIntyre P, Newall AT, MacIntyre CR, Banks E, Liu B. Risk factors for pertussis hospitalizations in Australians aged over 45 years: A population based nested case-control study.Vaccine, 2015 Aug 31. Volume 33, Issue 42, Pages 5647-5653.

Barnes M, Heywood AE, Mahimbo A, Rahman B, Newall AT, MacIntyre CR. Acute myocardial infarction and influenza: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.Heart, 2015 Aug 26. pii: heartjnl-2015-307691. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-307691. [Epub ahead of print]

Osterhaus A, Brooks A, Broberg E, MacIntyre R, Capua I. Why should influenza be a public health priority? Vaccine, 2015 Aug 25. pii: S0264-410X(15)01176-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.049. [Epub ahead of print]

*Salmon DA, MacIntyre CR, Omer SB. Making mandatory vaccination truly compulsory: well-intentioned but ill conceived. The Lancet Infectious Diseases.15(8):872-3.

 *Dirmesropian S, Wood JG, MacIntyre CR, Newall AT. A review of economic evaluations of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults and the elderly. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2015;11(4):818-25.

 *Dyda A, MacIntyre CR, McIntyre P, Newall AT, Banks E, Kaldor J, Liu B. Factors associated with influenza vaccination in middle and older aged Australian adults according to eligibility for the national vaccination program. Vaccine, 2015;33(29):3299-305.

*Dyda A, MacIntyre CR, Banks E, Kaldor J, Newall A, McIntyre P, et al. Medicare Benefits Schedule data to monitor influenza immunisation in Australian adults. Public Health Res Pract 2015;25(4):e2541543.

*MacIntyre R, Stein A, Harrison C, Britt H, Mahimbo A, Cunningham A (2015) Increasing Trends of Herpes Zoster in Australia. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0125025. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125025.

Wood JG, Goeyvaerts N, MacIntyre CR, Menzies RI, McIntyre PB, Hens N. Estimating Vaccine Coverage from Serial Trivariate Serologic Data in the Presence of Waning Immunity. Epidemiology. 11 Mar 2015. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000278. (Published ahead of print)

Liu B, Heywood AE, Reekie J, Banks E, Kaldor JM, McINTYRE P, Newall AT, Macintyre CR. Risk factors for herpes zoster in a large cohort of unvaccinated older adults: a prospective cohort study. Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jan 16:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Rahman B, Heywood A, Moa A, MacIntyre CR.  Influenza vaccination and cardiovascular risk in patients with recent TIA and stroke. Neurology. 2015 Jan 6;84(1):105.

Ridda I, Heywood A, Hueston L, Dwyer D, MacIntyre CR. The Burden of Pertussis in Patients with and without Recurrent Ischaemic Vascular Events. Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets 2014;14 (2):101-109. doi: 10.2174/1871526514666141014145229

Gao Z, Wood JG, Gidding HF, Newall AT, Menzies RI, Wang H, McIntyre PB, Macintyre CR*. Control of varicella in the post-vaccination era in Australia: a model-based assessment of catch-up and infant vaccination strategies for the future.

Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Sep 15;143(7):1467-1476.

Freeman E, Lawrence G, McAnulty J, Tobin S, MacIntyre CR, Torvaldsen S. Field effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccine and uptake of post exposure prophylaxis following a change to the Australian guidelines. Vaccine.2014 Sep 22;32(42):5509-13. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.07.048. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

*LiyanageSS, Segelov E, Malik A, Garland SM,Tabrizi SN, Cummins E, Seale H, Rahman B, Moa A, Barbour AP, Crowe PJ, MacIntyre CR. A case-control study of the role of human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Australia. Journal of Oncology, April 2014; vol. 2014, Article ID 236482, 7 pages.

*MacIntyre CR, Ridda I, Gao Z, Moa AM, McIntyre PB, Sullivan JS, Jones TR, Hayen A, Lindley RI. A randomized clinical trial of the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in frail, hospitalized elderly. PLoS ONE, 2014:9(4): e94578. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094578

*Cunningham AL, Litt J and MacIntyre CR. Immunisation for herpes zoster: current status. Med J Aust 2014; 200 (5): 243-244.

*MacIntyre, CR., Heywood, AE. The Bradford-Hill criteria and evidence of association between influenza vaccination and ischaemic heart disease. Heart, January 23, 2014. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-305435.

*MacIntyre CR, Heywood AE, Kovoor P. Influenza virus vaccine reduces risk of ischemic events: time for a large-scale randomized trial? (Commentary) Future Cardiol. 2014; 10(1): 35–37.

*Ridda I, Gao Z, MacIntyre CR. Attitudes, knowledge and perceptions towards whooping cough and pertussis vaccine in hospitalized adults. Vaccine 2014;32(9):1107-1112. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.010.

*MacIntyre, CR. Elderly vaccination - The glass is half full. Health 2013; 5: 80-85. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.512A011.   

*LiyanageSS,  RahmanB,  GaoZ, ZhengY, RiddaI, MoaA, NewallAT, SealeH,  LiQ, LiuJ-F, MacIntyreCR. Evidence for the aetiology of human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis. BMJ   BMJ   Open 2013;3: e003604. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003604.

ZhengY, YangP, WuS, MaC, SealeH, MacIntyreCR, *WangQ. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with uptake of vaccination against influenza among older residents in the postpandemic season in Beijing, China.  BMJ Open2013;3: e003662. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003662.

MacIntyre CR, *Heywood AE, Kovoor P, Ridda I, Seale H, Tan T, Gao Z, Katelaris AL, Siu HWD, Lo V, Lindley R, Dwyer DE.  Ischaemic heart disease, influenza and influenza vaccination: a prospective case control study. Heart Published Online First: 2013,99(24):1843-8. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304320.

*Liyanage SS, Rahman B, Ridda I, Newall AT, Tabrizi SN, Garland SM, Segelov E, Seale H, Crowe PJ, Moa A, MacIntyre CR. The aetiological role of human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2013;8(7): e69238.

*Liyanage SS, Li Q, Zheng Y, Seale H, Crowe PJ, Newall AT, Rahman B, Segelov E, Qu C-X, Zhao F-H, Liu J-F, Gao Z, Shi W, Yang P, Moa A, MacIntyre CR. The relationship between human papillomavirus and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in China – a review of the evidence. Adv Infect Dis. 2013; 3(1): 17-34.  

 *Gao Z, Wood JG, Burgess MA, Menzies R, McIntyre PB, MacIntyre CR. Models of strategies for control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome - A 40 year experience from Australia. Vaccine. Volume 31, Issue 4, 11 January 2013, Pages 691–697.

Ridda I, Yin JK, King C, MacIntyre CR and McIntyre P. The importance of pertussis in older adults: A growing case for reviewing vaccination strategy in the elderly. Vaccine 2012, Vol. 30(48), pp.6745-6752.

*Seale H, Trung L, Mackie FE, Kennedy SE, Boros C, Marshall H, Tidswell J, Shaw P J., Montgomery K, MacIntyre C.R. A qualitative study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among parents of immunosuppressed children. Vaccine. 2012 Nov 19;30(49):7027-31.

*Seale H, Kaur R, Macintyre CR. Understanding Australian healthcare workers' uptake of influenza vaccination: examination of public hospital policies and procedures. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Sep 19;12(1):325.

*Heywood AE. Newall AT. Gao Z. Wood JG. Breschkin A. Nicholson S. Gidding HF. Dwyer DE. Gilbert GL. Macintyre CR. Changes in seroprevalence to hepatitis A in Victoria, Australia: A comparison of three time points. Vaccine. 30(42):6020-6, 2012 Sep 14.

*Liyanage SS, Segelov E, Garland SM, Tabrizi SN, Seale H, Crowe PJ, Dwyer DE, Barbour A, Newall AT, Malik A, Macintyre CR. Role of human papillomaviruses in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2013;9(1):12-28.

 *Seale H. Mak JP. Razee H. Macintyre CR. Examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of domestic and international university students towards seasonal and pandemic influenza. BMC Public Health. 12:307, 2012.

Song N. Gao Z. Wood JG. Hueston L. Gilbert GL. MacIntyre CR. Quinn HE. Menzies R. McIntyre P.Current epidemiology of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in Australia: progress towards elimination.Vaccine. 30(27):4073-8, 2012 Jun 8.

*Li A. Newall AT. Britt H. Macintyre CR. The cost and disease burden of pneumonia in general practice in Australia. Vaccine. 30(5):830-1, 2012 Jan 20.

 *Seale H. Macintyre CR. Seasonal influenza vaccination in Australian hospital health care workers: a review. Medical Journal of Australia. 195(6):336-8, 2011 Sep 19.

*Newall AT. Creighton P. Philp DJ. Wood JG. MacIntyre CR. The potential cost-effectiveness of infant pneumococcal vaccines in Australia. Vaccine. 29(45):8077-85, 2011 Oct 19.

*Ward K, Seale H, Zwar N, Leask J, MacIntyre CR. Annual influenza vaccination: coverage and attitudes of primary care staff. Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 5(2):135-41, 2011 Mar

 Seale H, Kaur R, Wang Q, Yang P, Zhang Yi, Wang X, Li X and MacIntyre CR. Acceptance of a vaccine against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus amongst healthcare workers in Beijing, China. Vaccine 2011;29(8):1605-10.

*MacIntyre CR, Egerton T, McCaughey M, Parrino J, Campbell BV, Su SC, Pagnoni MF, Stek JE, Xu J, Annunziato PW, Chan IS, Silber JL. Concomitant administration of zoster and pneumococcal vaccines in adults ≥60 years old. Hum Vaccin. 2010; 6(11):894-902.

*Seale H. Wang Q. Yang P. Dwyer DE. Wang X. Zhang Y. MacIntyre CR. Influenza vaccination amongst hospital health care workers in Beijing. Occupational Medicine (Oxford). 60(5):335-9, 2010 Aug.

 *Gao Z, Gidding HF, Wood JG, Macintyre CR. Modelling the impact of one-dose vs. two-dose vaccination regimens on the epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138(4):457-68.

*Ridda I. Macintyre CR. Lindley R. McIntyre PB. Brown M. Oftadeh S. Sullivan J. Gilbert GL. Lack of pneumococcal carriage in the hospitalised elderly. Vaccine. 28(23):3902-4, 2010 May 21.

 *Ridda I. MacIntyre CR. Lindley RI. Tan TC. Difficulties in recruiting older people in clinical trials: an examination of barriers and solutions. Vaccine. 28(4):901-6, 2010 Jan 22.

 *Newall AT. Wood JG. Oudin N. MacIntyre CR. Cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical-based pandemic influenza mitigation strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16(2):224-30, 2010 Feb.

*Seale H. Leask J. MacIntyre CR. Attitudes amongst Australian hospital healthcare workers towards seasonal influenza and vaccination. Influenza & Other Respiratory Viruses. 4(1):41-6, 2010 Jan.

Dean AS. Moffatt CR. Rosewell A. Dwyer DE. Lindley RI. Booy R. MacIntyre CR. Incompletely matched influenza vaccine still provides protection in frail elderly. Vaccine. 28(3):864-7, 2010 Jan 8.

*Ridda I. Lindley R. MacIntyre RC. Differences in the attitude and knowledge of hospital health care workers regarding older patient vaccinations. Human Vaccines. 5(11):761-4, 2009 Nov.

*Ridda I. Macintyre CR. Lindley RI. A qualitative study to assess the perceived benefits and barriers to the pneumococcal vaccine in hospitalised older people. Vaccine. 2009;27(28):3775-9.

*Seale H. Leask J. Po K. MacIntyre CR. “Will they just pack up and leave?" - attitudes and intended behaviour of hospital health care workers during an influenza pandemic. BMC Health Services Research. 9:30, 2009.

*Seale H. Leask J. MacIntyre CR. Do they accept compulsory vaccination? Awareness, attitudes and behavior of hospital health care workers following a new vaccination directive. Vaccine 27(23):3022-5, 2009 May 18.

*Wood JG, Gidding H, Heywood A, Macartney K, McIntyre PB, MacIntyre CR. Potential impacts of schedule changes, waning immunity and vaccine uptake on measles elimination in Australia. Vaccine. 27(2):313-8, 2009 Jan 7.

*Inglis, E, Kesson A, Newall A, McCartney K, MacIntyre CR. The Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Presenting to a Paeditaric Hospital. Epidemiology and Infection. 137(7):943-9, 2009 Jul.

 *Yapp A, Lindeman R, Gilroy N, Gao Z, MacIntyre CR. Infection Outcomes In Splenectomised Patients With Hemoglobinopathies in Australia. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009.13(6):696-700.

Heywood A, Gidding H, Riddell M, McIntyre PB, MacIntyre CR, Kelly H. Elimination of endemic measles transmission in Australia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2009 Jan;87(1):64-71.

*Beutels P, Scuffham PA,MacIntyre CR. Funding of drugs: do vaccines arrant a different approach? Lancet Infectious Diseases. 8(11):727-33, 2008 Nov. (Impact factor 11.8)

*Cagney M, McIntyre PB, Heron L, Giammanco A, Macintyre CR. The relationship between pertussis symptomatology, incidence and serology in adolescents. Vaccine. 26(44):5547-53, 2008 Oct 16

*Ridda I, Lindley IR, Gao Z, McIntyre P, Macintyre CR. Differences in attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of hospital health care workers and community doctors to vaccination of older people. Vaccine.  26(44):5633-40, 2008 Oct 16

*Ridda, I, Lindley R, MacIntyre CR. The challenges of clinical trials in the exclusion zone: the case of the frail elderly. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 2008: 27 (2) 61-66.

Newall, A. T.; Brotherton, J. M.; Quinn, H. E.; McIntyre, P. B.; Backhouse, J.; Gilbert, L.; Esser, M. T.; Erick, J.; Bryan, J.; Formica, N.; MacIntyre CR. Population Seroprevalence of Human Papillomavirus Types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in Men, Women, and Children in Australia. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 46(11):1647-55, 2008 Jun 1.

*Newall AT, Scuffham PA, Kelly H, Harsley S, MacIntyre CR. The cost-effectiveness of a universal influenza vaccination program for adults aged 50-64 years in Australia. Vaccine. 26(17):2142-53, 2008 Apr 16.

*Newall AT, Wood JJG, MacIntyre CR Influenza-related hospitalisation and death in Australians aged 50 years and older . Vaccine. 26(17):2135-41, 2008 Apr 16.

 *Cunningham AL. Breuer J. Dwyer DE. Gronow DW. Helme RD. Litt JC. Levin MJ. Macintyre CR. The prevention and management of herpes zoster. Medical Journal of Australia. 188(3):171-6, 2008 Feb 4.

*Ridda I, Motbey C, Lam L, Lindley I R, McIntyre PB, MacIntyre CR. Factors associated with Pneumococcal immunization among hospitalised elderly persons:   A survey of patient’s perception, attitude, and knowledge. Vaccine. 26(2):234-40, 2008 Jan 10

*Gidding HF, Warlow M, Backhouse J, Macintyre CR, Gilbert GL, McIntyre PB. The impact of a new universal infant and school-based adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program in Australia. Vaccine, 25(51):8637-41, 2007 Dec 12.

*Seale H. Macintyre CR. Dwyer DE. Wang H. The changing epidemiology of severe cytomegalovirus disease in Australia. Human Vaccines. 3(6):239-44, 2007 Nov-Dec.

*Newall AT, Beutels P, Macartney K, Wood J, MacIntyre CR. The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Australia. Vaccine. Dec 17;25(52):8851-8860. Epub 2007 Oct 23

Araujo LQ. Macintyre CR. Vujacich C. Epidemiology and burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Australia, Asia and South America.  Herpes. 14 Suppl 2:40-4, 2007 Sep.

Heywood AE, Macartney KK, MacIntyre CR, McIntyre PB. Current developments in varicella-zoster virus disease prevention. A report on the varicella-zoster virus workshop convened by the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases on 16–17 November 2006. Communicable Diseases Intelligence. 2007. Sep;31(3):303-10.

Gidding HF, Wood J, Macintyre CR, Kelly H, Lambert SB, Gilbert GL, McIntyre PB. Sustained measles elimination in Australia and priorities for long term maintenance. Vaccine. 2007 4;25(18):3574-80.

*Ridda I,  MacIntyre R,  Lindley RI, McIntyre PB, Sullivan J, Gilbert GL, Kovoor P, Manolios N, Fox J. Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination uptake in hospitalised patients aged 65 years and over shortly following the commencement of a publicly funded national pneumococcal vaccination program in Australia. Human Vaccines, May-Jun; 3(3):83-6. Epub 2007 May 30.

*Macintyre CR, Burgess M, Isaacs D, McIntyre PB, Menzies R, Hull B. Epidemiology of severe hepatitis A in Indigenous Australian children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2007 May;43(5):383-387.

*Newall AT, Beutels P, Wood J, Edmunds WJ, MacIntyre CR. Cost-effectiveness analyses of human papillomavirus vaccination. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Apr;7(4):289-96.

*MacIntyre, C. R. New developments in BCG vaccine: implications for tuberculosis control. Epidemiology and Infection, 2007 Feb;135(2):177-80.

Backhouse JL, Gidding HF, Macintyre CR, McIntyre PB, Gilbert GL. Population-based seroprevalence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C capsular antibody before the introduction of conjugate vaccine, in Australia. Vaccine. 2007; 26;25(7):1310-5.

Salmon DA, Teret SP, MacIntyre CR, Salisbury D, Burgess MA, MD, Halsey, NA. Compulsory Vaccination and Conscientious or Philosophical Exemptions: Past, Present and Future. Lancet 2006; 367: 436–42.

*Cagney M, Macintyre CR, McIntyre P, Puech M, Giammanco A. The seroepidemiology of pertussis in Australia during an epidemic period. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1208-16.

*Newall AT. Macintyre R. Wang H. Hull B. Macartney K. Burden of severe rotavirus disease in Australia. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health. 42(9):521-7, 2006 Sep.

*Gidding HF, Brisson M, Macintyre CR, Burgess MA. Modelling the impact of vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2005 Dec;29(6):544-51. 

*Lawrence GL, MacIntyre CR, Hull BP, McIntyre PB. Effectiveness of the linkage of child care and maternity payments to childhood immunisation. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 2;22(17-18):2345-50.

Lawrence GL, Hull BP, MacIntyre CR, McIntyre PB. Reasons for incomplete immunisation among Australian children. A national survey of parents. Aust Fam Physician. 2004 Jul;33(7):568-71.

Butler J, McIntyre PB, MacIntyre CR, Gilmour R, Howarth A, Sanders B. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Australia. Vaccine, 2004 Mar 12;22(9-10):1138-49.

*Lawrence GL, MacIntyre CR, Hull BP, McIntyre PB. Measles vaccination coverage among five-year-old children: implications for disease elimination in Australia. Aust NZ J Pub Health. 2003; 27: 413-8.

Hull BP, Lawrence GL, MacIntyre CR, McIntyre PB. Is low immunisation coverage in inner urban areas of Australia due to low uptake or poor notification? Aust Fam Physician. 2003 Dec; 32:1041-3.

Hull BP, Lawrence GL, MacIntyre CR, McIntyre PB. Immunisation coverage in Australia corrected for under-reporting to the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2003 Oct; 27:533-8.

*MacIntyre CR, McIntyre PB, Cagney M. Community based incidence and risk factors for all-cause childhood pneumonia in Western Sydney, Australia. Epi & Infection 2003;131:1091-6.

Hull BP, Lawrence GL, MacIntyre CR, McIntyre PB. Estimating immunisation coverage - is the 'third dose assumption' still valid? Communicable Diseases Intelligence. 2003; 27(3):357-61.

*Gidding HF, MacIntyre CR, Burgess MA, Gilbert GL. The seroepidemiology and transmission dynamics of varicella in Australia. Epidemiology and Infection. 2003;131:1085-1089.

*MacIntyre CR, Leask J. Immunisation myths and realities. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 2003 Sep-Oct; 39(7): 487-91.

*MacIntyre CR, Chu CP, Burgess MA. Use of hospitalisation and pharmaceutical prescribing data to compare the prevaccination burden of varicella and herpes zoster in Australia. Epidemiology & Infection 2003; 131(1):675-82.

*MacIntyre CR, Burgess MA, Hull B, McIntyre PB. Hepatitis A vaccination options for Australia. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health. 2003; 39:83-87

*MacIntyre CR, Gay NJ, Gidding H, Hull B, Gilbert GL, McIntyre P. A mathematical model to measure the impact of the Measles Control Campaign on the potential for measles transmission in Australia. Int J Infect Dis. 2002 Dec;6(4):277-81.

*MacIntyre CR. McIntyre PB. MMR, autism and inflammatory bowel disease: responding to patient concerns using an evidence-based framework. Medical Journal of Australia. 175(3):127-8, 2001 Aug 6.

*MacIntyre CR. Hepatitis B vaccine: risks and benefits of universal neonatal vaccination. J Paed Child Health. 2001; 37(3):215-7.

Locarnini S, MacIntyre R. Influenza - the need for vaccination. - Australian Family Physician 1993: 22:1.

Herceg A, Ashwell M, Bell J, Fan L, Harvey B, McDonnell L, MacIntyre R, Pasaris I. Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination.   Medical Journal of Australia 1993; 159:70.

*MacIntyre CR, Carnie J, Plant AJ. Influenza vaccination in Victoria, 1992. Medical Journal of Australia 1993;159: 257-260.